>Numerical Methods
Monday, 2. August 2021

Numerical Methods

The numerical work undertaken is divided into both research orientated and contract based industrial work. A further subdivision can be made into two key areas of interest - internal and external flows.

Internal flows are concerned mostly with different aspects of cabin and ducted flows as well as with the dynamics of pipe flows. Convection-dominated flows are also of considerable interest. These flows are all characterized by relatively low Mach numbers. Incompressible solvers based on the commercial StarCCM+  and the  ENGSYS release of OpenFOAM  are used. In addition, an in-house solver "FLOWSI" has been developed which has proved to be highly effective on simple geometries and is used extensively for fundamental research tasks. StarCCM+ and OpenFOAM provide the basis for applied research work. The department also has some experience in the application of topology and surface optimization methods to internal ducted flows, using OpenFOAM and ANSA,  together with other tools, such as the SANDIA optimization tool suite Dakota. Modeling of condensation and multi-phase mass transport in heat transfer systems are also numerically studied within the department but with a relatively low priority.

External flows of interest are primarily dominated by the external flow around ground-based vehicles such as trains, trucks and automobiles. Dependent on the Mach number, the flows may be treated as either incompressible or compressible, with OpenFOAM and StarCCM+ being the primary tools for the incompressible numerical work. Compressible calculations are undertaken mainly using the DLR TAU code. The experience of the department in using OpenFOAM for compressible flow problems is limited at this time. Panel-based methods are also used to successfully predict inviscid vehicle loads. Typical problems of interest for the department include the influence of cross-winds on vehicles and how these effects impact on relevant safety standards, tunnel entry dynamics, drag reduction on vehicles, vehicle-vehicle interaction and the impact of vehicle operation on the environment as well as aspects of vehicle optimization strategies.  

The numerical method group has access to the SCART facility for high-performance computing needs, and, in addition, SVN-based software repositories are used to facilitate communication and exchange of information, such as code modifications and extensions.

In summary, SCART is involved in a wide range of numerical activities, spanning both industrial and research work, with emphasis being on the validation of methods for industrial and research needs. SCART is uniquely placed in being able to use existing experimental facilities to validate numerical work as well as with the ability to collaborate and exchange information and expertise with other research groups. A list of papers is given below in order to assist the reader in evaluating the interests/activities of SCART in the application of numerical methods to real world problems and fundamental research.


Dr. Keith Weinman German Aerospace Center (DLR)
Institute of Aerodynamics and Flow Technology, Department Ground-Based Vehicles
Phone: +49 551 709-2339

German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Aerodynamics and Flow Technology, SCART
Bunsenstraße 10, 37075 Göttingen, Germany